Tuesday 09 August 2022

Quality One Australia

Process Mapping Facilitation


Quality One Process Mapping Facilitation

Process Mapping  Process Mapping Facilitation  Process Mapping Training

Process Identification Process Identification
Stakeholder Identification Stakeholder Identification
Process Mapping Session Capture Process Mapping Session Capture
Process Mapping Standards Process Mapping Standards
Process Mapping Session Results Process Mapping Session Results
Process Mapping Repository Process Mapping Repository
Process Mapping Sign Off Process Mapping Sign Off
Process Chain Development Process Chain Development

Process Mapping Facilitation Home Process Identification

In order to gain the advantages of process mapping in the organisation it first must identify the processes within it. This can be achieved by collecting data in a few key areas:

  • What does the organisation make or do
  • Who are the organisations customers
  • Who are the organisations suppliers
  • How many personnel work for the organisation
  • What key regulations are required to met by the organistion
  • What is the organisational structure
    • International, National, Local
    • Corporation, Company, Sole Prorietorship etc.
    • Hierarchical, Matrix, Horizontal/Flat, Network, Divisional, Line Organizational, Team-based Organizational
As a starting point most organisations will have some standard entity divisions within the organisation. Common starting points could be:
  • Operations
  • Finance
  • Marketing
  • Sales
  • Human Resources
  • Purchasing
  • Customer Service
  • Manufacturing
  • Senior Management - This will be required for reporting lines.
Organisational Charts will also allow cross referencing of resouurces in processes and enable ownership of processes to be allocated and needs to be included in intial process studies.
Please click for assistance on Process Identification within your organisation.

Process Mapping Facilitation Home Stakeholder Identification

In order to capture processes as is it is important to identify all key stakeholders in the process including those who affect or are effected by the process. These include:

  • Process Owners
  • Process Executors - Personnel that deliver the process
  • Regulatory Bodies
  • Organisational End Consumers
  • Process Customers
  • Process Suppliers
  • Assets used in the process
  • Systems used in the process
  • Reports generated from data created by the process
  • Interacting Processes interal and external to the organisation

Process Mapping Facilitation Home Process Mapping Session Capture

When capturing processes the team needs to capture the As Is State:

  • The As Is state is how the process is currently executed
  • The As Is state is not necessarily the captured process map if it exists
  • The As Is state requires input from all stakeholders, operators and potentially the process value stream
Process Mapping Sessions:
  • Are brainstorming sessions that capture the required process as a map
  • Uses common brainstorming techniques
  • Should include those executing the process
  • Should include stakeholders if a process design session
  • Should have a facilitator and a scribe as resource
  • Should not attempt to capture the process as a standard process map
When capturing processes in a brainstorming session it is helpful to not use a computer. Instead give each resource and asset in the process a different colour post it note.
Post it Notes

Each resource can then write on the post it note the action or decision and place in order. As each resource is in a different colour swimlane maps can be produced electronically after the session.

Steps in Creating a Process Map
  • Select a process
  • Define the process
  • Map the main process steps
  • Define the inputs
  • Map any alternate process steps
  • Map any inspection points
Within the process it is important to define:
  • the output of the process
  • the customers for the output
  • the customer requirements
  • the process participants
  • the process owner
  • the key stakeholders
  • the process boundaries – the first and last steps of the process
  • the inputs to the process and the suppliers of the inputs
Please click for assistance on Process Mapping Sessions within your organisation.

Process Mapping Facilitation Home Process Mapping Standards

Process Levels as part of a Process Mapping standard need to be defined within the organisation to enable a consistent approach to

  • Process Design and Development
  • Process Change
  • Process Risk Analysis
  • Organisational Training Programs
Process Levels should be designated from a Process Office within the organisation whose role is to ensure the process hierarchy is up to date.

ISO 9000 is a family of standards for quality management systems. ISO9000 is maintained by ISO, the International Organization for Standardization and is administered by accreditation and certification bodies. The rules are updated, as the requirements motivate changes overtime. Some of the requirements in ISO 9001:2008 (which is one of the standards in the ISO 9000 family) include:
  • a set of procedures that cover all key processes in the business
  • monitoring processes to ensure they are effective
  • keeping adequate records
  • checking output for defects, with appropriate and corrective action where necessary
  • regularly reviewing individual processes and the quality system itself for effectiveness
  • facilitating continual improvement
A company or organization that has been independently audited and certified to be in conformance with ISO 9001 may publicly state that it is "ISO 9001 certified" or "ISO 9001 registered". Certification to an ISO 9001 standard does not guarantee any quality of end products and services; rather, it certifies that formalized business processes are being applied. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_9001
Business process mapping refers to activities involved in defining exactly what a business entity does, who is responsible, to what standard a process should be completed and how the success of a business process can be determined. Once this is done, there can be no uncertainty as to the requirements of every internal business process. A business process illustration is produced. The first step in gaining control over an organization is to know and understand the basic processes. (Deming, 1982; Juran, 1988; Taylor, 1911)
ISO 9001 requires a business entity to follow a process approach when managing its business, and to this end creating business process maps will assist. The entity can then work towards ensuring its processes are effective (the right process is followed the first time), and efficient (continually improved to ensure processes use the least amount of resources).Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_process_mapping
Some broadly used process mapping standards are:
  • Gilbreth
  • The first structured method for documenting process flow, the flow process chart, was introduced by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth to members of ASME in 1921 as the presentation “Process Charts, First Steps in Finding the One Best Way to Do Work”. The Gilbreths' tools found their way into industrial engineering curricula. In 1947, ASME adopted a symbol set derived from Gilbreth’s original work as the “ASME Standard: Operation and Flow Process Charts.” The symbols used and displayed on this page and their subsequent use comes from the original Gilbreth presentation and document.

    In the year 1949, flowchart began to be used for planning computer programs and quickly became one of the most popular tools in designing computer algorithms and programs. These tools are now the accepted method to capture processes within organisations.
    Gilbreth Charts

    Click here to view Process Charts by F & L Gilbreth

  • BPMN
    • BPMN provides a notation that can be readily understandable by all users
      • Business Analysts
      • Technical Developers
      • Process Operators and Managers
    • Its structure contains
      • Work Flow Elements
        • Activities, Events, Gateways, Sequence Flow
      • Organising Elements
        • Pools, Swimlanes, Groups
      • Readability Elements
        • Annotation, Links
      • Special Behaviour Elements
        • Messages, Signals, Timers, Errors, Repeaters, Correlation
    Visio BPMN

  • Value Stream Mapping
  • A value stream map consists of:
    • Everything, including non-value adding activities, that makes transformation from raw information and materials to what the customer is willing to pay for
    • Communication all along the supply chain
    • The network of processes and operations
    • Assumes that you are creating something of value that a customer is willing to pay for
    • Refers to the sequential flow of activities needed to create work units and deliver them to the customer
    • Value stream mapping is a graphical flow of activities and work units that produce value for a customer. One of its many benefits is that it clearly identifies non-value add activities.
    Choosing a Value Stream for Improvement
    • Look beyond individual processes
    • Look at Upstream and Downstream processes
      • That share similar characteristics
        • People
        • Functions
        • Databases
      • Focus on economies of scale
    • Activities when choosing a Value Stream:
      • Identify any immediate customer concerns
      • Perform a work-unit routing analysis
      • Prioritize target value streams
    Visio Value Stream

    Process Mapping Facilitation Home Process Mapping Session Results

    At the end of the process mapping session the team should be able to produce process steps in order with the direction of output for each process step identified.
    The physical evidence of the session will be the post it notes in each colour representing each process stakeholder in order with directional orientation. The post it notes should be placed on larger butchers paper and clearly identified where it sits in the process to allow for transference into the organisations chosen process mapping software.
    Please click for assistance on Process Mapping Sessions Results and transferring them to organisational software within your organisation.

    Process Mapping Facilitation Home Process Mapping Repository

    Some software applications will organise the repository of the process maps as part of their structure and can also link process maps in a chain and hierarchy. Key Document Control Management System (DCMS) elements apply in the storage and retireval of process maps. These elements should include:

    • An agreed folder structure
    • An approval process should ensure all process maps are stored to standard
    • Access should be restricted to approved users for each process
    • Associated data and files should be accessible from/with process map storage
    • Should be stored as a library for change control purposes
    Please click for assistance on Setting up Process Map Repositories within your organisation.

    Process Mapping Facilitation Home Process Mapping Sign Off

    Sign off of process maps as they are developed are essential for ensuring the process maps can be used as a tool for process control within the organisation. Sign Off should occur by:

    • Initial Sign Off can include any or all of the following
      • Process Executors - Personnel that deliver the process
      • Regulatory Bodies if required
      • Process Customers if affected or required
      • Process Suppliers if affected or required
      • Roles within the organisation that own assets used in process
      • Roles within the organisation that own systems used in process
      • Interacting Processes interal and external to the organisation if affected or required
    • Final Sign Off
      • Process Owner
      • Process Standards Owner
      • Systems Process Co-ordinator
    Sign Off process should be outlined in the organisational process mapping standards.

    Process Mapping Facilitation Home Process Chain Development

    As process maps are captured and agreed the organisational process chain or value stream can be delivered. This is possible as each captured process should include:

    • Input Processes from Process Supliers
    • Output Processes to Process Customers
    Done well a full view of both product and service journey can be known in addition to any ancillery process that stems from or supports the product or service through the organisation.
    Note the organisational software that holds the process should be able to facilitate the chain of processes as part of its functionality to allow the organisation to have a mature approach to process improvement
    This data should also allow the organisation to create a process interface matrix which will assist in the analysis of risk and change management within the company.
    Please click for assistance on Process Chain Development within your organisation.

Forthcoming courses

Lean Six Sigma Yellow Belt
10 August 2022 [More...]
Process Mapping
12 August 2022 [More...]
15 August 2022 [More...]

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